Friday, 24 February 2017

Spring - Bean

Spring - Bean Definition

The objects that form the backbone of application and that are managed by the Spring IoC container are called beans. A bean is an object that is instantiated, assembled and managed by a Spring IoC container. These beans are created with the configuration metadata that we supply to the container.
The bean definition contains the information called configuration metadata which is needed for the container to know the followings:
·        How to create a bean
·        Bean's lifecycle details
·        Bean's dependencies
The above configuration metadata translates into a set of the following properties that make up the bean definition.
The class attribute is mandatory. The class attribute specifies the class of the bean to be constructed

id and name
Every bean has one or more ids called identifiers, or names. These ids must be unique within the BeanFactory or ApplicationContext the bean is hosted in. In an XmlBeanFactory, you use the id or name attributes to specify the bean id.

singleton or prototype
Beans are defined to be deployed in either singleton or non-singleton mode. When a bean is a singleton, only one shared instance of the bean will be managed and all requests for beans with an id or ids matching that bean definition will result in that one specific bean instance being returned.
The non-singleton or prototype mode of a bean deployment results in the creation of a new bean instance every time a request for that specific bean is done. This is ideal for situations where for example each user needs an independent user object.

By default beans are deployed in singleton mode. By changing the type to prototype, each request for a bean will create a new bean object.
In the below example, two beans are declared of which one is defined as a singleton, and the other one is a non-singleton (prototype). 
protoBean is created each and every time a client asks the BeanFactory for this bean, while singleBean is only created once; a reference to the exact same instance is returned on each request for this bean.

Spring - Bean
constructor arguments

This is used to inject the dependencies. Beans define their dependencies only through constructor arguments, arguments to a factory method, or properties which are set on the object instance after it has been constructed.  The container then inject those dependencies when it creates the bean.
Inversion of Control/Dependency Injection exists in two major variants:
  • setter-based dependency injection is realized by calling setters on the beans after invoking a no-argument constructor or no-argument static factory method to instantiate the bean.
  • constructor-based dependency injection is realized by invoking a constructor with a number of arguments, each representing a collaborator or property.

bean properties
Bean properties and constructor arguments can be defined as either references to other managed beans or values defined inline. The XmlBeanFactory supports a number of sub-element types within its property and constructor-arg elements for this purpose.  This is used to inject the dependencies.

autowiring mode

It is possible to automatically let Spring framework resolve dependencies for the bean by inspecting contents of the BeanFactory. This is kown as Autowiring.  A BeanFactory is able to autowire relationships between collaborating beans.
The autowiring functionality has five modes. Autowiring is specified per bean and can thus be enabled for some beans, while other beans won't be autowired.
Using autowiring, it is possible to reduce or eliminate the need to specify properties or constructor arguments, saving a significant amount of typing. In an XmlBeanFactory, the autowire mode for a bean definition is specified by using the autowire attribute of the bean element.
 Autowiring modes

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